Description of the condition
People with myopia cannot see distant objects clearly, but can distinguish close objects. As the disease progresses, vision gradually deteriorates. Once the resources of the refractive system are exhausted, the acute symptoms of myopia worsen and complete blindness may occur.
In this disease, the eye forms an image of an object in front of the retina instead of on the retina. The object appears blurry and “foggy”. Loss of vision can be caused by overexertion, working in a poorly lit room, trauma, or poor diet.
Forms and Causes
Myopic vision loss occurs as a result of damage to the eye and elements of the refractive system.
Depending on the degree of damage and the cause, myopia can be:
- Axial. Progresses due to excessive length of the anteroposterior dimension of the eyeball.
- Lenticular. Progresses due to an increase in the refractive power of the lens.
- Corneal damage. Formed as a result of excessive corneal curvature and intensity of its expression.
The disease can be true or false. In the case of true disease, there is structural damage to various parts of the eye such as the lens, eyeball and cornea. Treatment for true myopia involves targeting the organic changes and defects, such as lens correction.
False myopia, on the other hand, has no obvious defects in the anatomy of the eye. Treatment in this case is aimed at preventing and eliminating the factors that cause accommodation spasms. There is no need to correct abnormalities in the refractive system or the eyeball, as they are undetectable.
Visual disorders include the following:
Hereditary. Inherited from parents.
Acquired. Developed as a result of excessive visual strain.
Hereditary myopia is diagnosed in 50% of cases in children whose parents both have the disease. If only one parent has the disease, it is found in the child in 25% of cases.
Acquired myopia may require treatment if the visual system has been damaged by external factors such as trauma, unfavorable working conditions, overexertion or poor eye hygiene.
The severity of the disease depends on whether it is fixed or progressive. In the fixed form, there are no complications, vision remains at the same level and does not deteriorate. In the progressive form, clarity and visual acuity gradually decrease and, if left untreated, can lead to complete blindness.
Symptoms and degree of vision loss
For a long time, nearsightedness may not show any symptoms. Over time, a person must squint to see people’s faces or distant objects. Images become blurry and objects almost unrecognizable.
As the degree of nearsightedness worsens, the following symptoms may accompany the deterioration of vision:
- Headache caused by impaired blood flow to intraocular structures.
- Eye pain or burning. Symptoms occur when trying to hold objects at close range. This is a sign of overexertion of the intraocular structures.
- Lacrimation. Intense lacrimation is observed while reading or working at the computer. The same reaction is observed in bright light.
As the disease progresses, the size of the eye slit increases. This is due to the fact that the eye enlarges and bulges forward and the eyelids stretch. The posterior part of this organ, including the sclera, retina and vascular system, is stretched.
The degree of visual impairment depends on the stage of the disease:
- Mild (visual acuity from 0.20 to -3).
- Moderate (vision of -3 to -6 diopters).
- Severe (-6 diopters and more).
Visual acuity in first degree myopia is 0.5 and above. Changes in the length of the eye are slight and do not exceed 1.5 mm. The eye sees well, but the contours of distant objects are slightly blurred.
Visual acuity in second degree myopia is stable within 0.5-0.3. When the length of the eye reaches 33 mm, lesions (dystrophies) are seen in the retina. Distance vision is significantly reduced, but near vision at 30 centimeters is normal.
People with third degree myopia see distant objects very blurred. Visual acuity is reduced to 0.05. The retina and blood vessels become thinner and there are changes in the fundus of the eye.
In modern medicine, there are several ways to examine the eye prior to correction or treatment.
Measurement of visual acuity. Visual acuity is tested using a special chart with letters, numbers and pictures of different sizes. The degree of the disease is determined by which characters the patient can distinguish from which columns.
Ophthalmoscopy. The refractive power of the cornea is measured. Test marks are projected onto the cornea of the eye for diagnosis.
Refraction measurement. This method of diagnosing nearsightedness is similar to the previous method, but a test mark is projected onto the retina of the eye. It also checks the refractive power of the lens and cornea.
Computerized keratotopography. The latest technology is used to check the shape and refractive power of the cornea.
It takes little time to check visual acuity and the condition of the visual system. No special preparation is required before the diagnosis.
Correction and treatment
Treatment of short-sightedness is prescribed after examination by an ophthalmologist. To stabilize the condition and prevent its deterioration, the following methods are used
- Medication. Correction of vision with medication.
- Physiotherapy. Infrared laser, transcutaneous electrical stimulation, intranasal electrophoresis are used in treatment.
- Optical treatment. Myopia is corrected with lenses or glasses.
- Surgical treatment. Surgical/laser correction is performed.
In order to restore vision or at least prevent progression of the disease, treatment should be started as soon as the disease is detected and follow the ophthalmologist’s recommendations.
Prevention and control meaures
To maintain a normal visual acuity, a balanced diet is important. The diet should include foods rich in calcium and protein (cottage cheese, apricots, prunes, red meat). Special gymnastics Dashkevich and Avetisov can help restore the function of the organs of vision. Massage simultaneously with drug therapy can improve the symptoms of the disease. Intensive sports are contraindicated in patients with visual impairment and should be replaced by gymnastics and swimming.
Comfortable living, working and orientation in space depend on a person’s vision. Regular check-ups with an ophthalmologist are necessary for early detection of disorders and diseases. Even people with no complaints should have their peripheral and central vision checked at least twice a year.