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Hyperopia: Causes, symptoms and treatment


Disease description

Hyperopia (farsightedness) is an eye disease characterized by the formation of an image of objects behind the retina. The refractive power of the cornea is reduced and the axial length of the eye is significantly shortened.

The contours of objects become blurred. Objects are less visible up close than at a distance: Clarity is impaired not only at a distance of 20-30 cm, but also at a distance of more than 10 meters.

The disease can be diagnosed at any age by testing visual acuity. If not treated in time, it can lead to serious complications. The disease gradually leads to inflammation of the visual organs, development of glaucoma and symptoms of “lazy eye”.

Causes and development

Farsightedness is caused by an abnormality in the refractive structure or shape of the eye. There are several types of the disease:

  • Physiological in children;
  • Congenital;
  • Acquired;
  • Age-related (presbyopia).

Experts in diagnosing children’s vision have found that 85% of infants and toddlers have farsightedness due to the size of their eyes. By the time children reach the age of five, their vision corrects itself without medical intervention.


Congenital farsightedness is diagnosed in children over the age of five. By this time, the development of the eye and refractive structures is complete. Congenital pathology manifests itself in various anomalies in the development of the visual system.

Acquired presbyopia can be caused by trauma, performance of special tasks or overwork.
The onset of presbyopia depends on age-related factors. The crystalline lens gradually loses its original ability to measure the curvature of light rays. The pathological process begins in childhood and becomes clinically noticeable only after the age of 40.

Symptoms, signs and diagnosis

An examination for farsightedness shows that a person sees distant objects well, but sees near objects poorly. Vision is not completely reduced until the disease reaches a critical stage.

There are three degrees of severity:

  • Mild (up to 2 diopters).
  • Moderate (2-4 diopters).
  • Severe (more than 4 diopters).

If the severity of symptoms is not great, the disease is not significant. Good vision is maintained at all distances. Some patients complain of dizziness, headaches and sudden fatigue.

In the middle stage of the disease, near vision becomes difficult. At this stage, eye pain occurs when trying to see close objects. Headaches become more frequent. Images appear blurred, for example, lines blur when reading.

As the degree of farsightedness increases, it becomes difficult for the patient to see both near and far objects. Patients complain of severe headaches and the sensation of a foreign body in the eye.

Farsightedness can be divided into three types:

Visible type. The lens functions normally. Visual acuity is very important. Corrective lenses are chosen according to their coefficients.
Latent hypermetropia (hyperopia). Indicates the degree of use of the compensatory powers of the crystalline lens.
Total hyperopia. Determined when the accommodative system is switched off. During the diagnosis, special eye drops are used to relax the ciliary muscle.

Special tables for testing farsightedness help to identify the first injury. If the patient does not see the tenth row of symbols in the Sivtsev table (or a similar table), the ophthalmologist recommends the use of plus glasses.

Next, the vision test is performed as follows:

  1. Measurement of visual acuity. The doctor measures the peripheral visual acuity and checks the visual field (limits). Assessment of the refractive power of the eye.
  2. Biomicroscopy. Examination of binocular visual acuity. Examines the condition of the cornea and the tear film.Ophthalmoscopy.
  3. Diagnoses the condition of the optic nerve, intraocular vessels and retina.
  4. Ultrasound, angiography, and magnetic resonance imaging are very useful in determining hyperopia and its degree. These techniques are particularly useful in clarifying difficult diagnoses.

Correction and Treatment

Early examination and correction can eliminate farsightedness or at least minimize the risk of complications leading to total blindness. However, it is important to remember that treatment alone (prescription medications or eye drops) cannot eliminate the vision problem.

The following methods are used to correct farsightedness:

If the examination of a child with farsightedness reveals pathological development in the early stages, simple and practical methods can be used to correct the condition. If the eye is already fully formed and the examination of farsightedness reveals abnormalities, then laser surgery is recommended.


If the examination of a child with farsightedness reveals pathological development in the early stages, simple and practical methods can be used to correct the condition. If the eye is already fully formed and the farsightedness examination reveals abnormalities, laser correction can be performed. During its application, the cornea acquires the necessary curvature, thanks to which the image reaches the retina.

When examining people with visual impairment, it may be necessary to replace the natural lens as the disease progresses. Instead, an artificial lens in the form of a contact lens is implanted. In particularly complicated cases, surgery is performed.

Prevention and countermeasures

Currently, anyone can test for farsightedness using a special test on the Internet and receive the results with explanations. However, the correct diagnosis can only be made by an ophthalmologist.

To prevent the development of the disease, doctors recommend the following:

  1. Work with adequate lighting to avoid excessive eye strain.
  2. Work and rest moderately and avoid conditions that cause pain and tearing.
  3. Do specific exercises daily to reduce fatigue of the visual system.

Many visual acuity tests provide general recommendations. However, only an eye doctor can provide individualized advice and comprehensive vision testing. The best preventive measure is to see your eye doctor regularly. Even if there are no significant signs of disease, it is necessary to see a doctor at least twice a year.